RO in Argentina

A brief history of the studies and applications related to Dr. Elliott Jaques’ thinking in Argentina

This is a brief history of our experience and it would be highly commendable that other memories and facts were also made public.
María Raquel Popovich, Buenos Aires, 2005.

Introduction of the concepts

In the 1960’s and 1970’s José Bleger and Fernando Ulloa introduced Elliott Jaques’ discoveries under the name of Institutional Psychology along with their own research and studies at the University of Buenos Aires. One of those seminars, lead by José Bleger in 1968, introduced Elliott Jaques’ ideas from his 1951 book: “The Changing Culture of a Factory”. The leading organization consultants in Argentina attended these seminars.


Large organizations that have applied RO

In Argentina two large organizations have applied the theory and methods of Dr. Jaques under his direct guidance:

  • ACINDAR1. This steel company with over 3000 employees carried out a major implementation project between 1993 and 2001. Dr. Elliott Jaques directed the first stage and the firm continued the implementation under his guidance. During that time Ing. Arturo Tomás Acevedo was Chairman of the Board. The ACINDAR Foundation was especially dynamic in the dissemination of RO concepts in Argentina.
  • AFIP, Administración Federal de Ingresos Públicos2. This project was carried out between 1997 and 2001. It was coordinated by Aldo Schlemenson with the guidance of Elliott Jaques under Dr. Carlos Silvani’s executive management.

Numerous partial applications have also been installed in large, medium and small size organizations. Significant applications were done in the fields of insurance, clearance retail, supermarkets, security, burial services, clothes factories, sugar refineries, agricultural seeds, agro-chemical products, banks, and telephone communications companies, among others.


Dr. Elliott Jaques’ visits to Argentina

Dr. Jaques visited Buenos Aires numerous times between 1993 and 2001 to work with ACINDAR.

Jaques’ first visit in relation to the AFIP project was in December 1997 when he personally conducted a training seminar for the internal project team. He visited Argentina at least five times to work on this project. We know he made other trips to work with both AFIP and ACINDAR at the same time.

His last workshop in Argentina, “An encounter with Elliott Jaques,” took place at the Inter-Continental Hotel in Buenos Aires, on April 14, 2000.

On April 17, Dr. Elliott Jaques was awarded Professor Emeritus status at the University of Buenos Aires.


Current university teaching related to Dr. Elliott Jaques’ thinking

The current courses at undergraduate and graduate levels, dedicated totally or partially to the SST enunciated by Dr. Elliott Jaques, are the following:

At undergraduate level

  • ITBA, Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, course “Formación General III” (General Formation III), Course Chair: Ing. Ricardo Gutiérrez Krüsemann. It is a required course for engineering careers and is compulsory in the 5th year of all engineering specialties. It is one-term and is structured on: Elliott Jaques La organización requerida (2000) y (2004, in Spanish), Granica, Buenos Aires. Since March 2001 approximately 500 students have taken the course, with excellent results. (The course chair, Ing. R. Gutiérrez K., translated A General Theory of Bureaucracy into Spanish for his personal study. Also, the complete works of Dr. Elliott Jaques’ are used in English and in Spanish at ITBA.)
  • UADE, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, course “Administración II” (Management II). It is based on Jaques’ SST and uses the book, La organización requerida, which is in the recommended bibliography of all courses. Associate Professor Dra. María Raquel Popovich taught three sections in 2005 (150 students, first term offered).

At graduate level

  • UBA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Graduate Seminar on RO Concepts, Psychology (masters and doctorate level), chair: Dr. Aldo Schlemenson.
  • UB, Universidad de Belgrano, Course “Análisis y diseño de organizaciones” (Analysis and Design of Organizations) in the Masters degree program in Enterprise and Organizational Psychology, chair: Lic. Harald Solaas. Covers the first term and initiates the program on the SST and RO of Dr. Elliott Jaques. Its structure is based on the book La organización requerida (2000, 2004).
  • UCES, Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales, Course “Comportamiento organizacional” (Organizational Behavior), Masters degree program in Management of Human Resources. It develops contents and bibliography, especially: La Organización Requerida and the doctoral thesis of: Associate Professor, María Raquel Popovich, PhD. Dra. María Raquel Popovich
  • USAL, Universidad del Salvador, Course “Desarrollo organizacional” (Organizational Development). Masters degree program in Human Resources. Lic. Raúl Timerman. Its structure is based on the book, La organización requerida, Dr. Elliott Jaques.


Books in Spanish by Dr. Elliott Jaques
  • JAQUES, Elliott (2000) La organización requerida. Granica. Buenos Aires.Second Edition 2004.
  • JAQUES, Elliott (1990) “En elogio de la jerarquía” Harvard Business Review. Enero – Febrero. Trans. Norma Durán y Aldo Schlemenson. “In Praise of Hierarchy” (1990) Cason Hall & Co. Publishers, Gloucester, MA, USA.
  • JAQUES, Elliott (1984). La Forma del tiempo, Paidós, Buenos Aires. The Form of Time (1982). Cason Hall & Co. Publishers, Gloucester, MA, USA.
  • JAQUES, Elliott (1968). Manual de valoración de puestos, Ed Index. Madrid. Time- Span Handbook (1964). Cason Hall & Co. Publishers, Gloucester, MA, USA.
  • JAQUES, Elliott (1968) La medición de la responsabilidad laboral, Hormé, Buenos Aires.
  • JAQUES, E. y MENZIES, I.E.P. (1960) Los sistemas sociales como defensa contra la ansiedad, Hormé, Buenos Aires, Paidós (1969). (From: Human Relations (1953).) (Available in Spanish only. Withdrawn by Jaques.)
  • JAQUES, Elliott (1968) Trabajo, incentivo y retribución, Paidós. Buenos Aires. Equitable Payment (1961).


Doctoral Theses in Argentina
  • The doctoral thesis of Dr. Aldo Schlemenson presented in Brunel University, London UK was directed by Dr. Elliott Jaques. Published as a book in Spanish with the title: Análisis organizacional y empresa unipersonal. Crisis y conflicto en contextos turbulentos. Paidós, 1993. (Available in Spanish only.)
  • Dr. María Raquel Popovich’s doctoral thesis, presented to the Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE) in Buenos Aires, was directed by Dr. Aldo Schlemenson, under the title: Respondibilidad del Ejecutivo Principal en las grandes empresas. CEO’s Accountability in Large Enterprises, 2001. Published online by Quaderns Digitals.3 (Available in Spanish only.)

Currently, another doctoral thesis based on RO is underway in economics. The author, Adolfo Vispo, surveyed a group of professionals to get their insights and opinions for a central chapter entitled: “División del trabajo y capacidad cognitiva individual. Cinco relatos breves y un esbozo de interpretación” (“The Division of Labor and Individual Cognitive Capability, five brief extracts and an interpretive sketch”). Est. 2016. Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento - Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires.



1 Steel company (3,000 employees)
2 Administración Federal de Ingresos Públicos (20,000 employees). [The Argentine IRS & Customs.]

Major organizations and consulting firms that provide Requisite Organization-based services

A global association of academics, managers, and consultants that focuses on spreading RO implementation practices and encouraging their use
Dr. Gerry Kraines, the firms principal, combines Harry Levinson's leadership frameworks with Elliott Jaques's Requisite Organization. He worked closely with Jaques over many years, has trained more managers in these methods than anyone else in the field, and has developed a comprehensive RO-based software for client firms.
Ron Capelle is unique in his multiple professional certifications, his implementation of RO concepts through well designed organization development methods, and his research documenting the effectiveness of his firm's interventions
Former RO-experienced CEO, Ron Harding, provides coaching to CEOs of start-ups and small and medium-size companies that are exploring their own use of RO concepts.  His role is limited, temporary and coordinated with the RO-based consultant working with the organization
Founded by Gillian Stamp, one of Jaques's colleagues at Brunel, the firm modified Jaques;s work-levels, developed the Career Path Appreciation method, and has grown to several hundred certified assessors in aligned consulting firms world-wide recently expanding to include organization design
Requisite Organization International Institute distributes Elliott Jaques's books, papers, and videos and provides RO-based training to client organizations